Figuring out PCT patent filing deadlines isn’t always straightforward. There are two issues at play when you reference “deadlines.” One deadline can be a priority deadline. You need to meet this deadline so that your next filing receives the filing date of a previously filed application (i.e., the priority date). The Paris Convention (which guides portions of the PCT) has a 12-month priority deadline. That goes for U.S., Paris Convention Members and 153 PCT Member States.
Priority Claim Deadline
For the purposes of foreign filing, a provisional application and non-provisional receive the same treatment. In other words, that 12-month clock to file a PCT application starts ticking from the earliest filing date. If you file the following sequence of patent applications:
- A provisional application filed on January 1, 2000, (OK)
- A non-provisional application filed on June 1, 2000 claiming priority to the provisional, (OK)
- A PCT application filed on March 1, 2001 (PCT cannot claim priority to either the provisional or the non-provisional)
Article 4.C(4) of the Paris Convention dictates that the 12-month window for filing a PCT application commences on the filing date of the earliest application in the family. Accordingly, in the above scenario, if the PCT is filed on or before January 1, 2001, it will be entitled to the priority date of the provisional filing. However, if the PCT is filed after January 1, 2001, the PCT cannot claim priority to either the provisional or the non-provisional application. Without the priority claim, the novelty of the subject matter disclosed in the PCT would be negated by the non-provisional application (unless the non-provisional is abandoned prior to publication).
Statutory Bar Deadline
The second issue of PCT patent deadlines is that of statutory bars resulting from publication. In the university environment, inventors have a strong incentive to publicly share their research at an earliest date possible. So, let’s add to the scenario above:
- Filed a provisional on January 1, 2000, (OK)
- Disclosed invention February 1, 2000, (OK)
- Filed a non-provisional on June 1, 2000, (OK)
- Filed a PCT application on March 1, 2001 (PCT Fails)
In the above-mentioned scenario you lost your provisional priority date for the PCT. Foreign countries have an absolute novelty requirement meaning there a public disclosure before the filing date can negate possible patent rights in the disclosed invention. Consequently, since the PCT couldn’t use the provisional filing date (outside 12-months), it had to use the non-provisional filing date which was AFTER the disclosure.
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Recipes fall within patent-eligible statutory categories, since a final food product is “a composition of matter,” and the steps to create the food product represent a process. For patentability, the recipe passes the first hurdle. However, to be patentable, the recipe must also be new—as in, no one has ever performed the steps and/or formed the product before—as well a nonobvious. The nonobvious threshold is often the death of a recipe patent.
Patent cases on contingency introduce some complexities not found in other areas of the law. We are occasionally asked to write a letter, file a patent application, or handle a lawsuit on a contingent fee basis. Our policy is to decline such requests because contingency fee arrangements are usually unfair to the client.
Suppose a client asks us to write a demand letter for $100,000 on a contingency fee basis. They tell us to keep a third of the proceeds if the letter results in payment. We could receive a legal fee of $33,333.33 for a letter that would normally cost about $600.00. It makes much more sense for the client to pay the small letter-drafting fee and keep the proceeds.
Contingency in Patent Applications
The same logic applies to the filing of a patent application. To avoid a $10,000.00 legal fee for preparation of a mechanical patent application, for example, a client may propose that we waive the fee and participate in the profits derived from the invention. If the invention meets with commercial success, the client could pay a fee far in excess of $10,000.00.
If the invention is not commercially successful, we have worked for two to three weeks with no revenue. This is even though our overhead bills never stop coming in. We have no control over whether or not an invention meets with commercial success. That depends upon the marketing efforts made by the inventor, not upon the quality of the patent application. Consumers don’t purchase products because the patent application for the product is well-written. Being full-time patent attorneys, we can do no more than advise our clients to avoid marketing scams.
Contingency in Patent Lawsuits
A different reasoning applies to lawsuits. Contingency fee arrangements are common in personal injury (PI) cases because the only issue in such cases is damages. The liability is usually clear and most PI law firms will not accept a case on a contingent fee basis if liability is not clear. Thus, the only issue in most PI cases is how large the payment will be, not whether or not there will be a payment.
In intellectual property cases, liability is always disputed. An accused infringer will attack the validity of the patent by citing prior art that was not cited by the examiner, and will argue noninfringement as a backup defense. A typical patent infringement suit lasts two or three years and requires the full-time attention of at least one lawyer. No lawyer with an office can stay in business without revenue for such a long period of time. Personal injury cases, on the other hand, are over much quicker and, again, the only issue is the size of the recovery.
In most cases, we are able to quote a flat fee for our services. This removes the uncertainty caused by hourly rates. When a lawyer quotes a fee of $300 to $500 per hour to write a letter or to prepare a patent application, the inventor’s reply is always “Write fast.” Well, that leads to a letter or patent application prepared in a bum’s rush. A well-crafted letter, patent application, or an amendment to a patent application, is best prepared in a focused, well thought out manner. A flat fee protects the client from surprises, ensures a thorough preparation of the application, and is, we believe, the only fair alternative to hourly rates and contingency fees.
The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) has allowed your patent application and it is about to become an issued United States patent. Congratulations on your accomplishment! You are about to become a United States patent holder–a distinction reserved only for true visionaries and innovators. Prior to the issuance of your patent, you have an opportunity to continue building your patent portfolio and expanding your patent rights by filing a continuation patent application. Interested in finding out more about the advantages of filing a continuation patent application? Read on.
A patent is a barrier to competition. Well-informed patent attorneys seek to anticipate how competitors will attempt to design around the patent claims. While broad claims are sought, they must also be drawn with precision to avoid invalidity in view of prior art. Sometimes, neither inventor nor patent attorney can anticipate how a technology may evolve. After a patent is granted, a patent holder has very limited avenues for changing the scope of patent coverage. The two most commonly-used methods for accomplishing this objective are as follows:
- Reexamination: Either the patent owner or a third party challenger may cite new (or unapplied) prior art arguments against an issued patent. This procedure is frequently initiated in response to litigation seeking to cancel patent claims.
- Reissue: A patent reissue is often filed when prior art was inadvertently withheld during patent prosecution or the patent claimed too much (or too little). A patent’s scope can only be broadened within 24 months after it issues. After that, reissue amendments can only maintain or narrow the scope of coverage.
Both reexamination and reissue proceedings can be expensive and create new liabilities in the protection of an invention. However, there is another cost-effective method: filing a continuation application prior to the issuance of the “parent” application.
Advantages of a continuation patent application
A continuation patent application must have the same specification and drawings as the parent application. However, the continuation application can have a different claim scope. Therefore, a continuation application provides an opportunity to broaden or modify patent coverage for your invention. Because the continuation (the “child” application”) claims priority to a co-pending “parent” application, their patent terms are “coterminous.” Accordingly, continuation applications do not “extend” the patent term. However, by keeping at least one “child” application alive, the patent holder may update, modify, and even include additional subject matter in a later filed “continuation in part” (CIP) application.
In some cases, your patent attorney may recommend filing your continuation application with a request for deferred examination. You can find more details about deferred examination here.
Generally speaking, a utility patent will expire 20 years from its filing date. The filing date extends back to the earliest related patent application. The earliest related patent application will include foreign applications. However, provisional applications are excluded from the calculation.
There are also several factors that can affect the term of a patent. These factors include, whether the patent claims priority to other applications, whether the patent is subject to a terminal disclaimer, whether the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office added any patent term, and whether the patent owner has paid the necessary maintenance or annuity fees.
Regardless of the type of patent, all patents will eventually expire. Once expired, the disclosed information disclosed becomes part of the public domain. This means that the information contained in the patent is public property and can be used freely by anyone. To confirm, you cannot refile or renew your patent after it runs its full 20-year term (15-year if a design patent).
Booking a consultation does not automatically create an attorney-client relationship. However, no successful patent attorney will “steal” your invention. In fact, the reality is that inventing is hard work. It takes not just the spark of imagination, but project planning, marketing, capital investment and competition with the status quo. The attorney-client privilege in our profession is exceptionally strong: we are bound by confidentiality by both the state bar and the U.S. Patent & Trademark Office Rules of Professional Conduct. The attorney-client privilege is the client’s right and is fiercely protected by ethical attorneys.
A non-provisional patent application is a legal document filed with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. It contains all of the formal requirements to be examined. If properly prosecuted and assuming your invention is novel and not obvious, your non-provisional patent application will issue into a patent.
The content and formal requirements of a non-provisional patent application are extensive and complex. You should consult an experienced patent attorney to ensure that your non-provisional patent application is properly prepared and prosecuted.
A provisional patent application is legal document filed with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office that identifies your invention and establishes your priority date as the inventor. A provisional application will not be examined or published, and will not mature into an issued patent. Rather, it provides a 1-year window during which a non-provisional application should be filed to maintain your priority date. If you fail to file a non-provisional application within the 1-year window, you will lose your original priority date.
Establishing your earliest possible priority date can be critical. You should consult with an experienced patent attorney to ensure that your provisional patent application contains all of the necessary information to establish that you invented your invention as of the provisional filing date. Information not disclosed in the provisional patent application will not receive the same priority date as the information disclosed in the provisional application.
Upon filing the provisional patent application, you will be patent pending. However, you will not receive any patent rights while you are patent pending. In order to receive patent rights, you will need to file a non-provisional application and said application must issue into a patent.
No, you cannot renew a patent for an additional 20-year term. Utility patents have a 20-year term and design patents have a 15-year term. Patents rights are discharged discharged into the public domain when they expire.
Under some circumstances, the patent term may be extended. Our experienced patent attorneys can advise you on whether you have received or are entitled to an extension of your patent term.
A patent will also expire if the patent owner fails to pay the scheduled maintenance fees. Smith & Hopen employs a state of the art docket management system designed and built in-house to ensure that our clients never miss a maintenance fee.