Research and development within the U.S. Military often sets the stage for technological advancements that have broad societal impact. This ecosystem of military intellectual property closely aligns with our approach to IP management. We view every client as an essential partner, recognizing that today’s defense projects can become tomorrow’s commercial applications.

U.S. Grant Funding to Patents

We have handled hundreds of patents funded by the following U.S. agencies:

  • Nat. Aeronautics and Space Admin. (NASA)
  • National Science Foundation
  • Department of Transportation
  • Office of Naval Research
  • Nat. Inst. of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
  • Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA)
  • Department of Energy
  • Department of the Army
  • Department of Defense
  • National Cancer Institute
  • National Institutes of Health (NIH)
  • Department of Veteran Affairs
  • Air Force

Our expertise in intellectual property law is strategically adaptable, capable of aggressive action or calculated restraint depending on the operational requirements. Budgetary efficiency is paramount; we manage your military allocations with the same diligence we’d apply to our own resources. In offering this service model, we position ourselves as uniquely suited to meet the U.S. Military’s needs.

Case Studies

Multi-Component Projectile

The image is a representation of a United States Patent document for a firearms projectile. The top section of the document includes the patent number (US 7,748,325 B2) and the date of the patent (July 6, 2010). Below this, the title "FIREARMS PROJECTILE" is printed, followed by sections listing the inventor's name and location, the assignee company and its location, and a notice regarding the term of the patent adjusted under 35 U.S.C. 154(b). The application number, filing date, and prior publication data are also present. The left column contains various classifications and references to U.S. patent documents, while the right column provides an abstract describing the projectile structure. Below the textual information, there is a detailed line drawing of the projectile with numbered parts, showing the design features described in the abstract.

In response to the specific requirements of modern military engagements, such as the scenario in which a traditional round might pierce a Taliban vehicle’s windshield without causing the necessary soft tissue damage to stop the driver, a new kind of ammunition was required. This necessity was compounded by the need for NATO-approved, lead-free rounds capable of both penetrating barriers like vehicle windshields and then tumbling upon impact to cause sufficient soft tissue damage to incapacitate a target.

This innovation in projectile design addressed these requirements. Unlike traditional rounds, which maintain their integrity after impact, the advanced round is engineered to fragment upon hitting soft material. This fragmentation is a deliberate result of the projectile’s construction, where the nose and tail portions of the bullet are designed to separate. This separation is facilitated by an interface that ruptures when the projectile strikes soft targets, such as human or animal tissue.

When this engineered projectile hits a soft target, it is structured to ‘tumble’ — a movement that enhances the rupture of the interface, causing the nose and tail portions to detach from each other. The result is a controlled fragmentation that maximizes the round’s stopping power without increasing the risk of over-penetration, which could potentially harm unintended targets.

This tumbling and subsequent fragmentation ensure that the round transfers its energy to the target efficiently, maximizing the wound channel and increasing the likelihood of stopping an assailant quickly and effectively. The projectile exhibits a balance of lethality and control, designed to incapacitate while minimizing collateral damage.

Composite Fuselage Breach

The image shows a United States Patent document for a method of testing composite materials for structural damage. The header includes the patent number (4,836,030) and the date of the patent (June 6, 1989). The title "METHOD OF TESTING COMPOSITE MATERIALS FOR STRUCTURAL DAMAGE" is shown, along with the inventor's name and location, and the assignee company, Lockheed Corporation. The application number, filing date, classifications, field of search, and references cited, including other U.S. patents and publications, are listed. An abstract on the right side summarizes the patented method, which involves embedding optical fibers in composite material to detect structural damage. A line drawing below the text shows a perspective view of a composite material with embedded fibers, illustrating the concept described in the abstract.

U.S. Patent Number 4836030, entitled “Method of testing composite materials for structural damage,” introduces a significant advancement in nondestructive evaluation techniques, particularly advantageous for modern aircraft like the F-22 and F-35, which extensively incorporate composite materials in their fuselage and airframe.

This method employs ultrasonic waves to evaluate the integrity of composite materials without causing any damage. For aircraft such as the F-22 and F-35, which utilize composite materials for their strength-to-weight ratio and stealth characteristics, the ability to non-invasively detect internal defects is vital. This ensures the preservation of the material properties that are essential for the aircraft’s performance.

Lockeheed Martin is the assignee (owner) of this patent.

One of the foremost advantages of this patented method is the enhancement of aircraft safety. By enabling the early detection of internal defects, such as delaminations and inclusions that are not visible to the naked eye, the method ensures that such issues can be rectified before they evolve into critical structural failures. This early detection is crucial for high-performance military aircraft, where material failure can have severe consequences.

The image depicts the underside of a large aircraft, taken from a low angle, showcasing the detailed texture of its dark gray fuselage against a background of a partly cloudy sky. The aircraft appears to have a stealth design with angular lines and panels indicative of radar-absorbent materials, which are common in military stealth technology. The aircraft’s tail section is not visible, suggesting a focus on the wing or central body structure. There are visible markings, hatches, and access panels on the body of the aircraft, as well as some insignia or symbols that are too small to identify clearly.
Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit of New York, Stealth Bomber, shown during a low pass.

In addition, the patented method improves the reliability of damage assessment. Unlike surface-level inspection techniques, the use of ultrasonic waves provides a thorough assessment of the material’s condition, identifying potential weaknesses within the internal structure. This level of accuracy ensures that maintenance crews can target their repairs more effectively, reducing the risk of overlooking critical internal damage. The method also presents cost-saving implications. By detecting damage early, the extent of the required repairs is often lessened, thus avoiding more significant expenses associated with major repairs or overhauls that might be necessary if damage goes undetected.

Multi-Domain UAV Capable of Traversing Flooded Hamas Tunnels

The image is a representation of a United States Patent document for a "Convertible Ducted Fan Engine". It displays the patent number US 11,454,245 B1 and the date of the patent as September 27, 2022. The document includes sections for the applicant (Hyalta Aeronautics, Inc.), the inventor (Scott R. Kempshall), both from St. Petersburg, Florida, and the assignee (also Hyalta Aeronautics, Inc.). The application number and filing date are provided, as well as classifications and references to other patents and publications.

The document includes a notice that the term of this patent is extended or adjusted under 35 U.S.C. 154(b). There is an abstract section describing the convertible ducted fan engine, including a shroud, a drive shaft, a mechanical fan, and a rotational drive motor. A technical drawing on the left side of the page shows a side cross-sectional view of the ducted fan engine, with various components labeled, such as the shroud, drive shaft, and mechanical fan.

The convertible ducted fan engine detailed in U.S. Patent Number 11454245 facilitates the development of a UAV capable of operating both as an aircraft and a submersible, providing a strategic advantage in complex and fluid environments such as flooded tunnels. The engine’s ability to transition between a fluid-propulsion system and a friction-based drive system enables a UAV to swiftly enter a flooded tunnel by air, submerge and navigate underwater, and then resurface to relay critical intelligence.

For military operations, such as those conducted by Israeli and NATO forces, this technology could be utilized for reconnaissance missions in challenging terrains where adversaries may utilize subterranean tactics. The UAV, equipped with this convertible engine, could fly to specific locations, submerge into flooded tunnels, and gather intelligence with minimal detection risk. Its adaptability to switch between flying and submersible modes allows for rapid deployment and extraction, enhancing the operational efficiency of the forces.

The image depicts a watercraft with a digital camouflage pattern floating on the surface of the water. The vessel appears to be a drone or an unmanned surface vehicle, featuring multiple cylindrical sections with fans or turbines on top, suggesting that it is propelled by a ducted fan system. The body of the craft is low-lying and close to the water's surface, which may indicate a design focused on stability and stealth. The name "HYALTA Aeronautics" is visible on the side of the craft, which likely relates to the manufacturer or designer of the vehicle. The watercraft casts a reflection on the calm water, and the overall scene suggests a technological and modern naval application.
HD1 is capable of traversing multi-domain environments including underwater, ground, hover-flight and forward flight.

Upon collecting the necessary data, the UAV could then either return to its base to provide the gathered intelligence or relay it in real-time to the troops, depending on the communication and control systems installed. The integration of such an engine into a UAV design would aim to support the tactical and strategic objectives of the mission, ensuring that forces are informed of the ground realities in near real-time, which is crucial for decision-making and mission success.

Moreover, this technology could significantly reduce the risk to personnel by performing reconnaissance in potentially hazardous environments autonomously, ensuring that human operators remain at a safe distance while still achieving mission objectives.

Object Detection and Intelligent Magnification

The image is of a United States Patent document titled "SPATIAL POSITIONING OF TARGETED OBJECT MAGNIFICATION". It displays the patent number US 11,798,127 B2 with a marked future date of patent as October 24, 2023. The applicant is the University of Central Florida Research Foundation, Inc., Orlando, FL, and the inventors listed are Gerd Bruder, Gregory Welch, Kangsoo Kim, and Zubin Choudhary, all from Orlando, Florida. The assignee is also the University of Central Florida Research Foundation, Inc.

The abstract section of the document describes a system involving one or more cameras that capture objects at a higher resolution than the human eye can perceive. This system segments and scales up the captured images to human-perceptible size and presents them to a user over an unscaled background via a see-through display, with the goal of selectively amplifying the size of the object's spatially registered retinal projection while maintaining a natural (unmodified) view of the remainder of the visual field.

A graphic illustration accompanying the abstract shows three stages: identifying objects, segmenting object pixels from the background, and determining the optimal magnification scale to render object pixels for a see-through display. The illustration includes a "normal human view of the real world" and an "augmented view of the real world," showcasing the concept of targeted object magnification.

Funded by the Office of Naval Research and developed at the University of Central Florida, the technology claimed in U.S. Patent Number 11798127 incorporates a novel method for adjusting the altitude of magnified objects within an augmented reality (AR) display. High-resolution cameras, potentially exceeding 500 megapixels, capture detailed images which are then processed by a computer vision system to identify and classify objects of interest from the background.

Patent and research funded by the U.S. Navy.

The classified objects are segmented, and the foreground is subjected to a computational method that adjusts object altitudes in the user’s field of view when presented on an AR display. This adjustment is key to providing a coherent visual experience by ensuring that the magnified objects are not only clearer, but also correctly positioned within the natural spatial context, avoiding any disorientation that could arise from flat magnification.

The image features a partially submerged submarine in the ocean, with the submerged portion graphically highlighted in red for visibility. The submarine's conning tower is visible above the waterline, and there appear to be two figures standing on top of it, possibly crew members. The scene is set against a calm sea and a clear sky, indicating fair weather conditions. The red overlay likely represents the hidden portion of the submarine below the waterline, providing a visual aid to understand the size and shape of the submarine's hull.
The ‘127 patent adjusts the altitude of the rendered object so it is intuitive presented to the viewer.

The patent describes a system that seamlessly integrates these magnified objects into the user’s perception of the real world. The magnification process considers the object’s relative importance and the user’s visual acuity, selectively enhancing the perception of the object without disrupting the overall visual field. This method is intended for real-time applications and is capable of functioning with multiple users and processors, emphasizing efficiency in enhancing visual acuity with spatial awareness.

Airflow Manipulation

The image is a reproduction of a United States Patent document for a "SWIRLING JET ACTUATOR FOR CONTROL OF SEPARATED AND MIXING FLOWS". It includes the patent number US 9,989,078 B2 and the date of the patent as June 5, 2018. The applicant is listed as The Florida State University Research Foundation, Inc., of Tallahassee, Florida, and the inventors are Kunihiko Taira, Farrukh Alvi, and Phillip Munday, all from Florida. The assignee is also The Florida State University Research Foundation, Inc.

The abstract describes a method of controlling a fluid flow using an actuator that allows for precise, actively controllable momentum and/or vorticity injections. The system is designed for independent control of the momentum and swirl entering into the fluid system, adding perturbations to the flow in a systematic manner for tunable control and improved flow characteristics.

Accompanying the abstract, the bottom of the document includes a series of three diagrams: a side view of a vortex generator, a top view of a swirling jet leading edge, and a perspective view of a retentionist outlet, all related to the technology described in the patent.

U.S. Patent Number 9989078, issued to Florida State University and funded by the United States Air Force, presents a method for improving aerodynamic efficiency through flow control. This method specifically addresses flow separation, which impairs lift and increases drag on aerodynamic bodies due to boundary layer detachment under adverse pressure gradients.

USAF logo
This patent and research was USAF-funded.

The core of this patented technology is the independent injection of momentum and vorticity into the fluid flow over an airfoil, a capability not offered by existing flow control devices. Prior devices, categorized as active or passive, could not separately adjust the momentum and swirl introduced into the flow. This patent overcomes this limitation, providing a means to fine-tune aerodynamic properties critical for applications in which performance is paramount.

The image shows a F-22 fighter jet from a top-down aerial perspective, set against a plain light background. The jet is adorned with a camouflage pattern, featuring various shades of grey and blue. It has a streamlined design with swept wings, a single vertical tail fin, and air intakes on either side of the fuselage near the cockpit. The cockpit canopy is clear, and the aircraft number or identification is visible on the wing, although it is not legible in the description. The overall design suggests that the jet is a modern military aircraft, possibly designed for stealth capabilities given the color scheme and the aircraft's contours.
F22 fighter jet uses vector thrusting.

The design involves actuator sites that input momentum and vorticity at strategic points, such as near the separation point on the body, to maintain attached flow. This system offers a more sophisticated approach to flow manipulation, with potential military applications in which precise aerodynamic control can yield significant operational benefits. The independent control of flow characteristics through this method could lead to advancements in military aircraft design, enhancing lift and reducing drag, thus offering a strategic edge in aerodynamic performance.

Opioid Pyroelectric Detection

The image shows a United States Patent document for a "SPECTRALLY SELECTIVE PYROELECTRIC DETECTION DEVICE AND ASSOCIATED METHOD OF USE". It includes the patent number US 11,460,399 B2 and the date of the patent as October 4, 2022. The applicant is listed as the University of Central Florida Research Foundation, Inc., with inventors Anthony Terracciano, Robert Peale, Christopher Arrasmith, and Subith Vasu, all from Orlando, Florida. The assignee is also the University of Central Florida Research Foundation, Inc.

The abstract details a method and device for receiving and identifying electromagnetic radiation in the terahertz (THz) frequency range. The device boasts unique and tunable resonating features due to a combination of material and geometric parameters, enabling precise frequency filtration with ultra-narrow channel widths.

Included in the image is a diagram of the detection device structure, showing layers of materials like Ti/Au, AlN, and Si substrate, with dimensions and scale indicated for reference.

U.S. Patent Number 11460399 funded by DARPA and developed at the University of Central Florida dicloses a pyroelectric detector with the capability to detect electromagnetic radiation specifically within the terahertz (THz) range. Traditional detectors are designed for mid-wave and long-wave infrared spectral regions and are not suitable for the THz range. This device circumvents the need for multiple optical components on which other alternatives rely, like bolometers and deuterated triglycine sulfate detectors.

Terahertz detectors are significant for identifying substances like fentanyl, which is a highly potent opioid with various analogs that interact with opioid receptors in the body. Fentanyl’s lethal nature is underscored by its low lethal dose in comparison to heroin, and the even more dangerous carfentanil, which is an analog of fentanyl. The increased fatalities due to fentanyl highlight the urgent need for an efficient detection method.

The image depicts a collection of white pills scattered on a surface, with a shallow depth of field focusing on one pill in the foreground. This particular pill is larger and has a split line down the middle, indicating it can be divided for dosing. The rest of the pills, varying in size and shape, are blurred in the background. The lighting is soft and the background is a clean, white surface, which draws attention to the pill in focus.
White fentanyl pills.

Current methods for detecting fentanyl present risks to first responders due to the drug’s high potency and various intake methods. Hence, a contact-free, easy-to-operate, quick, and accurate detection device is crucial for safety and effectiveness in the field. The proposed invention fulfills this need by providing a device and method that can quickly and safely detect fentanyl and its derivatives without direct contact.

DARPA logo
This research and patent was funded by DARPA.

The inventive device combines specific materials and geometrical configurations to resonate at frequencies within the THz spectrum (0.1-15 THz), with ultra-narrow channel widths for spectral selectivity. It can function as a large area resonator for collecting weak signals or as part of an array to create images within its sensitive spectrum. This technology was not an obvious solution to the prior art’s limitations and represents a novel approach to addressing the challenges of detecting specific optical qualities, including dangerous narcotics like fentanyl, within the terahertz wavelength range.

Nanocomposites For Thermoelectric Applications

The image is a reproduction of a United States Patent document for "BULK DIMENSIONAL NANOCOMPOSITES FOR THERMOELECTRIC APPLICATIONS". The patent number is US 8,759,662 B1 and the date of patent is June 24, 2014. The inventor listed is George S. Nolas from Tampa, Florida, with the assignee being the University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida.

The abstract outlines the use of thermoelectric elements in devices such as heat sensors, heat pumps, and thermoelectric generators. The document details a quantum-dot or nano-scale grain size polycrystalline material that enhances the effects of size-quantization present inside the nanocrystal groups. These groups are composed of defined features like interference barriers formed along chains. The doping material can be either silver or sodium. The compound for the nanocomposites is identified by spark plasma sintering, with crystal grains sized between 1 and 100 nm.

References to U.S. patent documents and other publications related to thermoelectric materials are included in the document. There is also a section of classifications and a field of classification search with codes provided for more detailed categorization of the patent.

U.S. Patent Number 8759662 covers technology developed at the University of South Florida supported by The Department of Defense and the U.S. Army Medical Research and Material Comand. Thermoelectric (TE) elements are utilized in heat sensors, heat pumps, and generators (TEGs) to convert heat into electricity. Advances in nanotechnology, specifically using quantum dots and nano-scale polycrystalline materials, have led to improvements in TE elements. These materials are doped with metals like silver or sodium and processed through spark plasma sintering to enhance their properties.

With increasing energy demand and decreasing resources, TE elements’ efficiency becomes paramount, especially for automotive applications where they can convert exhaust heat to electrical energy. This contributes to better fuel efficiency and pollution reduction. TE devices are favored for their reliability, safety, and eco-friendliness.

This patent was funded by the U.S. Department of Defense
This research and patent was funded by the U.S. Department of Defense.

The efficiency of TE materials is measured by the figure of merit, ZT, a function of the Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, and thermal conductivity. Improvements in ZT are vital for better TE devices but are challenging due to the interrelated nature of these properties.

The generation of electrical voltage from TE materials requires high Seebeck coefficients and substantial temperature differences, presenting a manufacturing challenge. Current production methods can’t economically create bulk materials with the necessary properties, making the widespread use of TE technology costly.

Digital Coding Scheme For Data Transmission

The image is a reproduction of a United States Patent document for a "DIGITAL CODING SCHEME FOR DATA TRANSMISSION". It showcases the patent number US 8,295,326 B1 and the date of the patent as October 23, 2012. The inventor is listed as Cori Reid from Largo, Florida, and the assignee is the University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida.

The abstract describes a system and method for digitally encoding and decoding digital data during transmission using a combination of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) and turbo coding. The process improves the actual data rate transmitted through the channel by removing the need for a dedicated outer Error Correction Code (ECC).

Accompanying the abstract, there is a graph representing a Turbo Code Bit Error Rate (BER) performance comparison between different Signal-to-Noise Ratios (SNR). The document includes sections for referenced U.S. patent documents and other publications related to the field of digital data transmission and error correction.

U.S. Patent Number 8295326, developed at the University of South Florida with funding from the Army Research Office and SOCOM, describes an enhanced data transmission system that combines Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) with turbo coding. This method integrates DSSS de-spreading as part of the turbo decoding process, omitting a separate outer error correction code (ECC). This allows for higher data transmission rates by reducing the number of bits required for encoding, which is particularly beneficial in military applications where communication reliability and speed are critical.

Digital transmissions often suffer from noise interference, which can corrupt data. Traditional ECC methods combat this by adding extra bits for error correction, sacrificing data rate for accuracy. The patented system offers a solution that improves the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) without heavy data rate penalties, an advantage in scenarios like underwater acoustic communications where SNR is usually low.

Turbo coding, a method used to ensure data integrity, typically operates separately from DSSS. However, this patent unifies them, allowing for the de-spreading process of DSSS to act as a reliable ECC. DSSS works by spreading the original data over a broader bandwidth, which is then narrowed back down (de-spread) at the receiver to weed out noise. In the patented system, this de-spreading is adeptly combined with the decoding steps of turbo coding to improve efficiency.

This innovation streamlines the encoding-decoding process, enhancing the robustness and speed of digital data communication, which is of significant value in military operations where secure, fast, and accurate data transmission is paramount for operational success.