The Patent Trial and Appeal Board (PTAB) is an administrative law body of the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). The current PTAB replaced the previous judicial body at the USPTO known as the Board of Patent Appeals and Interferences back in 2012.
The PTAB is composed of administrative patent judges that are tasked with conducting trials including inter parties review (IRP), post-grant review (PGR), covered business method (CBM) review, and derivation proceedings. Additionally, the PTAB hears appeals from adverse patent examiner decisions during the examination of patent applications and reexam proceedings at the USPTO.
Adverse PTAB decisions may be appealed to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit.